Schengen visas apply to all Schengen countries, unless otherwise stated.  Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania also accept Schengen visas (even if they are limited to one country) and visas issued by the other for stays of up to 90 days over a 180-day period (with the exception of Turkish and Azerbaijani nationals travelling to Cyprus).     However, visas issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel within the Schengen area.  Following the signing on 28 May 2015 of an agreement between the European Union and the following countries on visa-free travel: the European Union visa code sets out the procedures and conditions governing the issuance of short-stay visas and transit through the territories of European Union countries. It also lists third countries whose nationals must hold a transit visa for EU airports when transiting through international transit zones at EU airports and sets out the procedures and conditions for issuing these visas. The “Visa Network Data ( 1969/2010/2014) data collection was collected with the help of several student assistants from the University of Bremen and the University of Bonn. It includes information on (bi-unilateral) visa waiver agreements around the world (including all countries with at least 400ks and regulated international status). The data source is the TIM manual published monthly by IATA. For more information on the dataset, see Mau, Gulzau, Laube and Zaun (2015). In order to highlight the changes in visa policy of EU Member States since 1969 and their effects, the following maps show the visa exemption for the former EU-15 group. Footnote 3 These Member States form a privileged region, footnote 4, which has since been a huge attraction target for tourists and migrants from around the world.
The EU-15 group was chosen for both dates for methodological reasons, namely to have a fixed point of comparison. This is the only way to understand the harmonisation of EUROPEAN visa policy, when the EU-15 did not exist as a political entity in 1969 and had already been expanded in 2010.